By Esa Itkonen
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Extra info for Analogy as Structure and Process: Approaches in Linguistics, Cognitive Psychology and Philosophy of Science (Human Cognitive Processing, Volume 14)
The invention of deontic logic and the invention of many-valued logic illustrate two distinct uses of analogy (of Type 3). Deontic logic was invented literally on the analogy of modal logic: first there was the system A, and then a system B, analogous to A, was invented. The case of many-valued logic is different: first there was two-valued logic, and then it was realized that it is really just a special instance of a more general notion, namely many-valued logic. As noted above, this generalization was achieved by replacing the two discrete numbers 1 and 0 by analogous, but more general designations ‘higher number’ and ‘lower number’.
20), is indeed practically worthless (or ‘ambivalent’, to put it more leniently). 19]” (op. : 53). There is one important respect in which the preceding account of abduction remains incomplete. The ‘circle’ of abduction (cf. 17) is more complicated than has been indicated so far. 19), it is interpreted in one way. 31 (1791-1839) Chapter 1. The concept of analogy way. In general, this aspect of abduction has not been duly acknowledged. e. predicate logic or just capital letters like ‘T’ vs. ‘O’) are inadequate to express this kind of change in interpretation.
An analogy is a mapping of knowledge from one domain (the base) into another (the target), which conveys that a system of relations that holds among the base objects also holds among the target objects. (Gentner 1989: 201) It should be added that in the case of ‘symmetrical’ analogy (like our bird vs. fish example) the mapping may go on in both directions simultaneously (cf. 12), which means that in this case a fixed ‘base vs. target’ distinction can no longer be maintained. In the sequel Gentner (1989) offers the following example.
Analogy as Structure and Process: Approaches in Linguistics, Cognitive Psychology and Philosophy of Science (Human Cognitive Processing, Volume 14) by Esa Itkonen