By Samuel Glasstone
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Extra resources for An introduction to electrochemistry
In most cases the impurities in the water can influence the ionization of the electrolyte, or vice versa, or chemical reaction may occur, and the observed conductance of the solution is not the sum of the values of the It is desirable, therefore, to use water which is as free as constituents. possible from impurities; such water is called conductance water, or conductivity water. ~ Shedlovsky, J. Am. Chem. , 52, 1793 (1930). 06 10~6 X serious difficulty. - 1 at 18, can be obtained without " " The ultra-pure ohmchief 1 problem is the removal of carbon dioxide and two principles have been adopted to achieve this end; either a rapid stream of pure air is passed through the condenser in which the steam is being condensed in the course of distillation, or a small proportion only of the vapor obtained by heating ordinary distilled water is condensed, the gaseous impurities being carried off by the uncondensed steam.
Types The of conductance cells resistance (R) of the solu- tion in the cell can be measured, as already explained, and hence the specific conductance equation (2) as K = (K) is given by I = aR I is the distance between the electrodes and a is the area of cross For a given section of the electrolyte through which the current passes. ~ l , it follows that where K K (8) It is neither convenient nor desirable, with the cells in general use, to / and a with any degree of accuracy, and so an indirect method measure DESIGN OP CELLS is employed for the evaluation of the cell constant.
The basic circuit of a simple type of audio-frequency amplifier is shown in Fig. 11, in which the conductance bridge is connected to the primary coil of an iron-cored transformer (P); T is a suitable vacuum tube and C is a condenser. The use of a vacuum-tube amplifier introduces the possibility of errors ; 1 Hall and Adams, J. Am. Chem. , 62, 89 (1940;; Jones, Mysels and Juda, ibid. , 50, 2919 (1940). ELECTRODES FOR CONDUCTANCE MEASUREMENTS 35 due to capacity and interaction effects, but these can be largely eliminated by suitable grounding and shielding (see p.
An introduction to electrochemistry by Samuel Glasstone