By Walter Leuthold
This publication has been written regularly nearby of untamed African ungulates, on the study heart in Tsavo East nationwide Park, V oi, Kenya. whereas this had many gains, there have been additionally a couple of drawbacks. the most the sort of is the truth that Voi isn't really precisely on the hub of medical task, whether we limit ourselves to African ungulates. hence, while I had felt at first that i used to be sufficiently acquainted with ethological paintings on those animals to jot down an invaluable overview, it quickly turned woefully glaring that this assumption was once faulty. during the last few years reports on African ungulates have seasoned liferated and effects are being released in journals just about all over the area. My place in East Africa used to be occasionally under perfect with appreciate to entry to the newest literature, and that i depended to a substantial quantity at the goodwill of associates in giving or lending me correct papers. i'm satisfied to file that I acquired loads of help and cooperation during this appreciate. however, i could have over appeared a few very important papers inadvertently; their authors aren't believe slighted via such omissions, which purely mirror availability of literature to me. Readers can also become aware of a substantial geographical bias in desire of East Africa, on the cost of different African areas, relatively South Africa.
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Additional resources for African Ungulates: A Comparative Review of Their Ethology and Behavioral Ecology
Buffalo, elephant). This is self-explanatory if we view the home range primarily as a reservoir of resources (see below). Home range size may also differ between males and females (Table 3). The factors discussed so far are attributes of the animal itself, physical or behavioral. Of course, the quality of the habitat is of utmost importance in determining home range size. If an animal can satisfy all its needs the year round in a small area, it is likely to have a small home range. If there are large fluctuations in, e.
6a). In the Tragelaphines, the Fig. 6a and b. Urination (a) and defecation (b) postures of adult male Thomson's gazelle (from Walther, 1964b) 30 male urination posture differs little from the normal stance, while other antelopes are intermediate between these extremes. Similarly, male Tragelaphines show relatively little departure from the normal posture for defecation, only raising the tail and perhaps arching the back slightly, whereas adult male gazelles crouch low down with their hindquarters (Fig.
In particular, localized defecation tends to be an attribute of highranking individuals, generally adult males, although it does occur also in females in certain species (see above). It probably functions as a means of olfactory marking and will be discussed from that angle in the appropriate context. , but may secondarily be modified by other factors. For instance, in many ungulates urination and defecation often occur in close sequence ("Ham-Koten" in gazelles: Walther, 1968), so that their rates may be correlated to some extent.
African Ungulates: A Comparative Review of Their Ethology and Behavioral Ecology by Walter Leuthold