By Christopher Clapham
African independence embarked on foreign politics a gaggle of the world's poorest, weakest and such a lot synthetic states. How have such states controlled to outlive? To what quantity is their survival now threatened? Christopher Clapham indicates how an first and foremost supportive overseas setting has develop into more and more threatening to African rulers and the states over which they preside. the writer unearths how foreign conventions designed to uphold nation sovereignty have frequently been appropriated and subverted through rulers to reinforce their household regulate, and the way African states were undermined by means of guerrilla insurgencies and using diplomacy to serve basically deepest ends.
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Additional info for Africa and the International System: The Politics of State Survival
Their competitors, whether these were opposition leaders operating legitimately within those political systems that permitted it, or insurgents seeking to displace the incumbent regime by force, correspondingly sought to undermine the doctrine of state sovereignty in order to gain access to the external resources which this doctrine denied them. As the international advantages accruing to statehood declined, however, and as the costs of maintaining states increased and both of these trends were evident in post-Cold War Africa - so the balance of advantage shifted.
As this integration proceeded, so the scope for arranging such deals, and the commission which the intermediary could extract from them, were progressively squeezed. Where formerly underdeveloped states were able to achieve a breakthrough into export-led industrial production, as was the case with several east and south-east Asian states, these benefited from rapid economic growth, which in turn strengthened both the fiscal and the political autonomy of the state, even though (or because) the economy was increasingly integrated into global markets.
For those states which occupied the lowest rungs in the hierarchy of international politics and the global economy, even statehood itself was thus not something which could be taken for granted. Though some of them incorporated indigenous concepts of statehood which predated the colonial era, for many the very idea of the state was of recent and external origin. Formal access to the international system through the recognition of independent sovereignty was little more than a generation old. Maintenance of that sovereignty, and the privileged position which it bestowed on those who managed states, was a constant struggle, success in which depended in part on the skill with which political elites were able to manage the relationships 26 Fragile states and the international system between their domestic and external environments, in part on developments in a global system in which their power was negligible.
Africa and the International System: The Politics of State Survival by Christopher Clapham