By Renata Dmowska (ed.), Barry Saltzman (ed.)
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Extra info for Advances in Geophysics, Vol. 32
1989a),though not always. 24 SLAWOMIR J. GlBOWlCZ Shear failure is represented mathematically by a double-couple point source. The double force couple consists of two opposing force couples with no net force or torque. The space around the source is divided into four quadrants with respect to the direction of the first motion of P waves. Two quadrants are compressional and two quadrants are dilatational. One of the two nodal planes separating these quadrants coincides with the fault/fracture plane and the other with the auxiliary plane.
For the barrier model, constant stress drop is assumed outside of the annular barrier, and for the asperity model inside the annular asperity. The seismic moment and stress drop are calculated using both the Madariaga (1976) model of an expanding circular crack with constant rupture velocity and the appropriate relations from theoretical works (Madariaga, 1979; Das and Kostrov, 1983,1985,1986). Several models are considered, the model of McGarr (1981) being a special case. The models are very simple in concept, but some practical applications in mines could possibly be expected.
The moment tensor consists of an isotropic (volumetric) and a deviatoric part. Seismic sources with no volume change can be obtained by constraining the moment tensor to have zero trace. For double-couple sources the further constraint of zero determinant must be imposed on the seismic moment. After the recovery of the moment tensor, the deviation of the solution from the double-couple mechanism can be evaluated from the ratio IIlmin/lAlmax, where I are the eigenvalues of the moment tensor. 5 for a compensated linear vector dipole.
Advances in Geophysics, Vol. 32 by Renata Dmowska (ed.), Barry Saltzman (ed.)