By E. Arimondo, P.R. Berman and C.C. Lin (Eds.)
This quantity keeps the culture of the Advances sequence. It comprises contributions from specialists within the box of atomic, molecular, and optical (AMO) physics. The articles include a few evaluate fabric, yet are meant to supply a accomplished photograph of modern very important advancements in AMO physics. either theoretical and experimental articles are incorporated within the quantity. . foreign specialists . entire articles . New advancements
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Cs beam clocks (Essen & Parry, 1955; Ramsey, 1950), based on beams of alkali atoms in a vacuum, are also highly accurate and are manufactured in rack-mounted enclosures. Vapor cell atomic clocks are based on atoms confined in a cell with a buffer gas (Arditi, 1958; Carver, 1957; Dicke, 1953) or wall coating Advances in CPT for Atomic Clocks (a) 29 (b) LO Number of atoms in final state E2 E2 E1 State preparation E1 State detection Transition excitation LO frequency Figure 4 (a) The operation of a passive atomic frequency reference typically proceeds in three steps.
In principle under these assumptions, and with sufficient light intensity, atoms can be optically pumped into a coherent dark state with an efficiency of nearly 100%. Optically pumping a very large fraction of the atoms into a coher ent dark state even under ideal conditions requires the optical pumping rate to be much greater than the ground-state relaxation rate. This results in significant power broadening and is not ideal for clock operation, as it reduces the resonance Q-factor. Typically, the optical intensity for normal clock operation is chosen such that the power broadening rate is roughly equal to the ground-state relaxation rate; under these circumstances, about 50% of the atoms are optically pumped into the coherent state.
F’ = 2 F = 2 is jNCi ¼ p1ﬃﬃ2 ðj1i þ j2iÞ, and for the F = 1 ﬃ ð5j1i þ j2iÞ. On the other ! F’ = 1 F = 2 Lambda system, jNCi ¼ p1ﬃﬃﬃ 26 hand, on the D1 line, the dark state is given by jNCi ¼ p1ﬃﬃ2 ðj1i þ j2iÞ for both Lambda systems. In addition, on the D2 line there is one single-photon transition that depopulates the dark state: ! jF 0 ¼ 3; mF ¼ 1 > : The combined influence of these two effects is that the strength of the CPT resonance on the D2 transition is significantly smaller than that on the D1 transition.
Advances in Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics by E. Arimondo, P.R. Berman and C.C. Lin (Eds.)