By Mueni wa Muiu, Guy Martin (auth.)
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Extra resources for A New Paradigm of the African State: Fundi wa Afrika
The worst off were Libyans who lived in ethnic structures that collected tribute for Carthage, enrolled soldiers for its armies, and provided the core military protection of the state. Whenever they sensed a weakening of Carthage’s political power, Libyans revolted against its harsh rule. Carthage exploited the Libyans through labor, resource extraction, and taxation. Carthage encouraged the emergence of a Libyan leadership inclined to please and to cooperate with it. ”11 Carthage traded in foodstuffs, textiles, metals, and slaves.
Axum was well-placed to benefit from trade routes that connected the Mediterranean to northeast Africa and Saudi Arabia. Trade also involved northeast Africa and the Red Sea through Axum and Port Adulis. From the first to the seventh centuries AD, Adulis was the single major coastal port of Axum on the Red Sea through which all the kingdom’s trade flowed. Restricting the activities of foreign merchants to Adulis allowed efficient collection of the custom duties that supported the state and its military power.
Pharaoh Pepi I conscripted Nubians in the royal army to protect its northern borders. It was the Eighteenth Dynasty pharaoh (Tutmosi 1) who penetrated furthest south to Kurgus, four hundred miles south of Meroe. After his death, the Kushites revolted against Egyptian rule. The Egyptians never conquered Punt, although sea-born trade continued between the two countries. Ships from Punt arrived in Egypt carrying fruit, ebony, and ivory, as well as monkeys and some animal skins. Indigenous African Political Systems and Institutions 27 State-building in Antiquity: Kush/Nubia (Napata and Meroe) Kush (the Nubian kingdom) refers to the upper Nile Valley south of Egypt, and to the diverse civilizations that occupied all or part of that region from the second millennium BCE to the end of antiquity (the fourth century of our era).
A New Paradigm of the African State: Fundi wa Afrika by Mueni wa Muiu, Guy Martin (auth.)